In 1921 People’s Commissariat on Education issued a decree to establish People’s Conservatoire and accepted several thousand students without any exams, thus giving a start to professional musical education in Azerbaijan. The goal was “to popularize the art of music among workers. “ Baku State Conservatoire was founded later providing three traditional levels of musical education. The highest level meant to manage the system of professional music education in the country was Musical Academy.

Pianists L. Pressman, I. Aceberg became Academy’s first rectors. The Conservatoire Charter drafted by Uzeir Hajibeyov, pioneer of Azerbaijan music (rector since 1939), was based on the charters of St.Petersburg and Moscow Conservatoires. Uzeir Hajibeyov launched an Eastern Department implementing two teaching methods: traditional “oral” fingering and the other method based on written European system. In 1920-s — 1930-s Conservatoire professors mainly came from Moscow and St. Petersburg.

A “Group for Gifted Children” was created in the Conservatoire in 1933-1934 later to form a basis for the Special Music High School. During the same period the so-called ‘Rabfak’ or Workers’ School was established within the Conservatoire to attract young Azerbaijani workers to musical education. Future composers — G. Garayev, J. Hajiyev, T. Guliyev, Z. Bagirov and others were educated there. After U. Hajibeyov’s death the Conservatoire for several years had Kara Karaev as a rector. Since 1991 Baku Academy of Music is headed by an outstanding pianist F. Badalbeyli. In 1997-2007 Baku Academy of Music has regularly been a stage for M. Rostropovitch workshops and performances. Bella Davidovitch, graduate of the Special Musical High School and Dmitry Sitkovetsky, violinist and conductor, as well as other prominent musicians, conductors, theorists and composers from the USA, Germany, Japan, China, France and Russia would be frequent guest-stars of the Conservatoire.